Position of the Pelvis Organs

The pelvis provides a protective shield for the important pelvic contents, it serves to supports the trunk and helps in transmission of body weight to lower limbs during walking and sitting. Yet the female pelvis serves another vital function to protect the reproductive organs and the developing fetus during early pregnancy.

Pelvis observed from bottom

The bony pelvis is formed by the:

  1. Two innominate (hip bones)
  2. Sacrum
  3. Coccyx

The sacrum is composed of five fused vertebra and forms the posterior pelvic column. These bones articulate at the symphysis pubis and at the right and left sacroiliac joint to form a bony ring. They are held together by some of the strongest ligaments in the body. The pelvic complex comprises of four joints i.e. two synovial sacroiliac joints, two syndesmosis secondary cartilaginous joints (one pubic symphysis and one sacrococcygeal joint).

Female pelvis differ from male pelvis in being shallower, having straighter sides, a wider angle at symphysis and larger pelvic outlet which helps fetal head to enter, rotate and leaves the pelvis during labor. “in simple terms female pelvis is shallow, wider, curvy and lighter when compared to male pelvis “.

Wider and shorter female pelvis compared to male. Deep pelvic cavity which is oval shaped in female compared to male heart shaped.

Female Reproductive System / Genital Tract

It consist of highly specialized organs whose structure is elegantly functional: two ovaries, two fallopian tubes, the uterus and the vagina. Most important is to know about the muscles of pelvis and pelvic floor/ diaphragm’. Kegel described the pelvic floor as five layers of fascia and muscles attached to the bony ring of pelvis.

Uterus

Muscles of pelvic floor:

1. Anal sphincter – internal and external sphincter, puborectalis ring.

Function:
These three muscles work together to prevent fecal incontinence.

2. Urogenital triangle has two division:

A. Superficial Perineal –

  • Bulbocavernous
  • Ischiocavernous
  • Superficial transverse perineal

 
B. Urogenital diaphragm –

  • Urethrovaginal sphincter
  • Sphincter urethrae
  • Compressor urethrae

 
Function:
A. It stabilises perineal body and aids in clitorial erection.
B. serves in compression of urethra.

Levator Ani Muscle

3. Pelvic Diaphragm:

  •  Coccygeus
  •  Levator Ani Muscles –
    1. Pubococcygeus –
    Puborectalis & Pubovaginalis.
    2. Iliococcygeus

Function:
A. It flexes the coccyx.
B. Compression of vagina, urethra and rectum.

Article byDr. S. Mubashira